OK. My general understanding. The difference, as far as I know, is not linguistic but technologic.
Electric (English word: 1600) refers to a source
of power, not to the application itself: electric trains, steam trains, diesel trains; electric range, gas range; electric lights, gas lights, kerosene lanterns; electric car, gasoline car, diesel car; electric vacuum cleaner, carpet sweeper; &c. &c.
The word 'electron' only appears in English starting in 1894. Electronic
didn't exist before the triode vacuum tube (1906). (The vacuum tube was replaced by the transistor starting in the 1950s; which was itself replaced by the integrated circuit.) Electronic referred to a gadget whose entire functioning was a product of, (a corollary of), the intelligent use of relatively small amounts of electricity to create circuits
that did something
in and of themselves. They were not energy sources but uniquely new devices based on these relatively tiny electrical circuits: radio, television, computers. I think I would include radar.
I guess that telegraph and telephone occupied a middle ground; I think they began as electric devices. With digitalization I believe the telephone has long since become electronic.